Ethiopian Construction Project Management Institute

የኢትዮጵያ ኮንስትራክሽን ፕሮጀክት ማኔጅመንት ኢንስቲትዩት


Cultivating effective Construction Management Cultures
ውጤታማ የኮንስትራክሽን ማኔጅመንት ባህል ለማስፈን እንተጋለን!

Norms, Standards and Delivery Systems

ECPMI is empowered among others to initiate policy, strategy, and action plans that facilitate the building of competitive construction project management national capacity; and implement the same upon approval by the government. This section presents the institute's endeavors in developing and publicizing various norms, standards, and project delivery systems.


Construction Project Management Code of Standard

A construction project is a highly regulated venture. The legal regulation of a construction project comes in to picture in different phases & in different ways. Despite this and except contractually set obligations, there is no well-organized standard that establishes legally enforceable duties or requirements in connection to the successful execution of a project. In other words, there is no comprehensive standard document prescribing the requirements for the successful execution of a construction project.

In an effort to establish a national standard prescribing the statutory obligations, principles, and requirements for effective implementation of construction projects, ECPMI is in the process of preparing a CPM Code of Standard in accordance to Ethiopian Standard Development Procedures. It is believed this legal document will be vital and instrumental to:

  • Prescribe the principles and requirements for effective implementation of construction project,
  • Specify the mandatory stages in the project cycle and the required activities of project participants at each stage including standard of deliverables to be fulfilled prior at each stage of the project cycle, and
  • Establish a system that enables to monitor proper implementation of project activities in compliance with stipulated requirements.

The Ethiopian Construction Project Management Manuals serve as Model Code of Construction Project Management Practices which will assist users in complying with the statutory obligations prescribed in CPM Code of Standard.


National Productivity Norm for Building Construction Trades

Construction labour productivity (CLP) measures the extent to which a labour force works efficiently on construction projects. Unfortunately, Ethiopian construction industry does not properly measure CLP and lags behind with other industries. Previous attempts were made to develop a national construction output norm through former Ministry of Works and Urban Development, in 1995 ECPN-3 and in 1999 ECPN-5. However, these previous output norms were taken from local contractor’s estimates or bid files as well from engineering estimating standards and were not from actual site productivity measurement. The norms were not to be taken as final nationwide accepted standards, but as the minimum acceptable output that are to be used for “labor and equipment output norms” and expected crew production. These output norms are currently being used as is in the current Ethiopian construction industry. In the dynamic nature of the construction industry, it’s not acceptable to use the same norms for over 20 years; in addition, these norms had a limitation at the preparation.

Cognizant of the need to upgrade/update these national norms to ensure successful completion of project with respect to time, cost, quality and safety; and in line with its effort to build the construction project management national capacity and strengthening the competitiveness of the construction industry; in June 2016 ECPMI has prepared a concept note that formed the basis for the preparation of Standard Productivity Norms for Building and Road subsectors in collaboration with relevant stakeholders.

In line with the concept note prepared in 2016, an industry-wide CLP baseline pilot study was conducted to determine productivity baseline values, where construction labour productivity was defined as a ratio of output (e.g. m3) to input (total man-hour). Accordingly, the baseline productivities for various building construction activities were established. The actual labour time utilization of the construction crews, defined as the amount of time spent while carryout the seven work sampling categories (Direct work, Preparatory work, Tools and Equipment, Material handling, Waiting, Travel, and Personal), as well as the critical factors and practices influencing CLP positively and negatively, were also developed.

The study was conducted by the Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Productivity Team in partnership with the Ethiopian Construction Project Management Institute (ECPMI). This study relied on extensive job site data collected through factor surveys, documentation of factors affecting labour productivity, crew labour time efficiency measures (work sampling, foreman delay surveys, and craftsman questionnaires), and labour productivity data to establish the productivity baseline values for activities understudy and also identify the critical factors affecting labour productivity. The collected data is properly analyzed and the baseline productivity is established so that it can be used as ideal or un-impacted productivity. The baseline productivity was developed using three methods: Thomas’s, Clustering Approach, and Control Chart Approach and the maximum value of the three methods was selected. The construction productivity baselines have been developed for Concrete, Masonry, and Finishing activities. Furthermore, the implementation plan for the national level norm development has been studied and included in this study.

A copy of the pilot productivity study is presented here for further reference.

PILOT STUDY OF NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY NORM


Integrated Project Delivery

A recent analytical work conducted by ECPMI to identify gaps between expectations and actual performance of construction contracts has indicated that DBB is the most practiced type of delivery system in the building, road, and water subsectors and the use of traditional DBB construction contracts delivery model for all circumstances has been identified as limiting innovations and flexibility for enhanced contracts delivery performance. Moreover, the study has pointed out that the traditional DBB construction contract delivery approach may not be the best system for all circumstances and is criticized for a multitude of drawbacks.

The development and publicizing of a unified project management system that defines the joint and individual responsibilities of the project owners, contractors, and consultants is one of the integral parts of the duties and responsibilities of ECPMI. To this respect, hence, ECPMI carried out a study to evaluate the prospect of Integrated Project Delivery as an Alternative Construction Projects Delivery Method so as to optimize the use of resources and increase value-for-money in the value chain of the Ethiopian construction services delivery.

Evaluative study findings: The project delivery methods practiced locally can be characterized by the following features: - do not align business interests of all parties, - do not motivate collaboration throughout the design and construction process, and - do not tie stakeholder success to project success. Hence, it can be concluded that both the project participants and the operating environment in Ethiopian construction industry do not embody the contractual principles needed for the implementation of IPD.

Evaluative study recommendation: It is advisable to develop a transition strategy for project delivery methods with due consideration of applicable factors which among others include the inherent challenges of popular traditional delivery models to integration and potential ways to address them, Procurement strategies, Contractual arrangements, Compensation methods, and Organizational culture of project participants.


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